Ship Request

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  Gulf of Maine cysts  -  2009  -  Oceanus  
  Project Information  
Project Title: Interannual cyst distribution in the Gulf of Maine Project Status: Submitted
Principal Investigator: Donald Anderson, WHOI Project Institution: WHOI
Project ID: 101971 Version #: 2
Date Submitted: 4/1/2009 1:12:00 PM Created By: Bruce Keafer
Date Last Modified: 1/5/2010 4:56:00 PM URI Serial #: None
Funding Agencies: NOAA - NA06NOS4780245 - Funded
Summary of Field Work: Over the past several years, an important management tool for red tides or toxic Alexandrium blooms in the Gulf of Maine region has been a numerical model of bloom dynamics developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Each week during the bloom season, this model is run, providing a “hindcast” simulation of Alexandrium distribution and abundance for the preceding weeks and months, as well as a one-week forecast based on weather predictions.

The model is initiated from a map of Alexandrium cyst abundance in Gulf of Maine bottom sediments. Cysts are an important part of the organism’s life cycle. Asexually dividing vegetative cells in the overlying waters undergo sexual reproduction and produce cysts that are deposited to the surface sediments and accumulate to form “seedbeds” that germinate and inoculate the overlying waters in the following year(s) to re-establish the blooms. The links between the cysts observed in the sediments and the toxic cells in the overlying waters are important elements in the overall understanding of bloom dynamics.

Past studies have shown that the abundance of these cysts varies dramatically year-to-year, and that the cyst abundance measured during the fall or winter one year is a first-order predictor of the regional bloom magnitude in the next year. This knowledge, as well as the very high cyst abundance observed in 2007, led to a seasonal forecast of a major red tide in the Gulf of Maine in 2008, a forecast that was borne out with extensive shellfish closures in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, as well as offshore federal waters.

The primary objective of the proposed R/V Oceanus cruises for the Fall of 2009 and 2010 will be the collection of surface sediments for the enumeration of benthic cysts of the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense, in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and the Bay of Fundy (BOF). Similar to previous cyst cruises, the cruises will start and end in Woods Hole, MA with approximately 100 sediment stations sampled in the region. At each cyst station, undisturbed surface sediments will be collected using a Craib Corer. All cores will be processed on board into two layers (top 1cm and the 1-3cm layer). Each sample layer will be sonified and sieved to collect the particles in the <100µm and >20µm size fraction. The processed sample was preserved using formalin, then exchanged into methanol for long term storage until later microscopic analysis in the lab. The cyst samples will be enumerated using a primulin-staining technique routinely performed at the WHOI lab in Woods Hole, MA. After several months of microscopic analysis, the cyst data will be used as the cell source input (i.e., simulation of the germination of cysts into viable vegetative cells to start the bloom) for these models. These models will attempt to forecast the intensity of the 2010 and 2011 blooms.

In addition to the collection of cysts, near surface water samples will also be collected and counted onboard to determine if Fall Alexandrium blooms are consistently present in the region. The intensity and duration of blooms into the late summer and early Fall may be one factor that controls the deposition of new cysts each year.
Summary of Facility Requirements: The WHOI facility is well equipped to handle all the needs for this cruise on the R/V Oceanus
Summary of other requirements and comments:  
Ship Request Identification
Type of Request: Primary Ship Use Request Status: Submitted
Request ID: 1002894 Created By: Bruce Keafer
Date Last Modified: 1/5/2010 4:56:00 PM Date Submitted: 4/1/2009 1:12:00 PM
Requested Ship, Operating Days and Dates
Year: 2009 Ship/Facility: Oceanus
Optimum Start Date: 10/14/2009 Dates to Avoid: cruise cannot be started in Sept. due to science requirements for new cyst deposition in the region.
Earliest Start Date: 10/7/2009 Multi-Ship Op: No
Latest Start Date: 10/14/2009 Other Ship(s):

Operating Days Needed: Science Days Mob Days De-Mob Days Estimated Transit Days Total Days
10 2 1 0 13
Repeating Cruise?
(within same year)
No Interval:   # of Cruises:  

Description of Repeating cruise requirements:
Justification/Explanation for ship choice, dates,
conflicts, number of days & multi-ship operations:
R/V Endeavor is not available during the requested time. R/V Oceanus is available. This cruise is a help to keep the Oceanus funded for 2009 and 2010.
Work Area for Cruise
Short Description of Op Area
for use in schedules:
Description of Op Area: Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy
Op Area Size/Dia.: 40000 sq. nautical miles
  Lat/Long Marsden Grid Navy Op Area
Foreign Clearance and Permitting Requirements
Foreign Clearance Required? Yes Coastal States:

 Important Info on Foreign Research Clearances  

Are you or any member in your science party bringing in any science equipment items which are regulated for export by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and/or the Export Administration Regulations (EAR)?
No If yes, have you applied for the necessary permits through your export control office? No
 Questions about ITAR/EAR regulations?

Comments about foreign clearance requirements or
description of any other special permitting requirements
(e.g., MMPA, ESA, IHA, Marine Sanctuaries, etc.)
Port Calls
Requested Start Port Intermediate Port(s) Requested End Port
Woods Hole, MA, USA None Woods Hole, MA, USA
Explanation/justification for requested
ports and dates of intermediate stops
or to list additional port stops

 Important Info on Working in Foreign Ports

Science Party
Chief Scientist: Bruce Keafer, WHOI
# in Science Party 13 # of different science teams 3 # Marine Technicians to be
provided by ship operator:
(include in science party total)
Explanation of Science Party Requirements and Technician Requirements We will rotate 3 watches working round the clock - 4 on and 8 off.
Instrumentation Requirements That Impact Scheduling Decisions
Unselected Dynamic PositioningUnselected ADCPUnselected MultibeamUnselected Seismic
Unselected Dredging/Coring/Large Dia. Trawl WireUnselected Stern A-frameUnselected Fiber Optic (.681)Unselected 0.680 Coax Wire
Unselected SCUBA DivingUnselected Radioisotope use - briefly describeUnselected NO Radioisotope use/Natural level workUnselected Other Operator Provided Inst. - Describe
0 PI-Provided Vans - briefly describe Unselected MOCNESS  
Explain Instrumentation or Capability
requirements that could affect choice
of ship in scheduling.

We will use a Craib corer and Van Veen grab sampler for all sediment samples collected. This equipment will be user-supplied.

A small number of CTD casts may be required (20 stations)

Major Ancillary Facilities (that require coordination of schedules with ship schedule)
Unselected Helicopter Ops (USCG)Unselected Twin OtterUnselected Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) 
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)
Unselected Other AUVUnselected Sentry  
Coring Facility
Unselected Jumbo Piston CoringUnselected Large Gravity Core Unselected MC800 multicorer w/ MISO camera/telemetryUnselected OSU Coring Facility (MARSSAM)
Unselected Other Large Coring FacilityUnselected WHOI Long Core  
Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV)
Unselected AlvinUnselected Clelia (HBOI)Unselected JSL I & II (HBOI)Unselected Other HOV
Other Facility
Unselected MISO Facility - deep-sea imagingUnselected Other FacilityUnselected Potential Fields Pool Equipment 
Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)
Unselected JasonUnselected Other ROV  
Seismic Facility
Unselected Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Center (OBSIC)Unselected Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP)Unselected Ocean-Bottom Seismometer Program (UTIG)Unselected Other Seismic/OBS Facility
Unselected PASSCALUnselected Portable MCS groupUnselected Portable MCS/SCS groupUnselected U.S. Geological Survey Ocean Bottom Seismometer Facility (USGS at WHOI)
Towed Underwater Vehicle
Unselected ARGO IIUnselected Hawaii MR1 (HMRG)Unselected IMI12 (HMRG)Unselected IMI120 (HMRG - formerly DSL 120A)
Unselected IMI30 (HMRG)Unselected Other Towed Underwater VehicleUnselected Towfish 
UNOLS Van Pool
Unselected AUV Lab Van #1Unselected Clean Lab VanUnselected Cold Lab VanUnselected General Purpose Lab Van
Unselected Radioisotope Lab VanUnselected Wet Lab Van  
UNOLS Winch Pool
Unselected Mooring SpoolerUnselected Portable WinchUnselected Turn Table 
Explain Major Ancillary Facilities
Requirements and list description
and provider for "other" systems.

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